There are a number of communication protocols at the physical and access network stage which can be used for transmitting data from IoT devices depending on the requirements. A mapping showing a few of these protocols using the TCP/IP model:
Some of the protocols for IoT device network access & physical transmission are LPWAN – Low Power Wide Area Network, BLE – Bluetooth Low Energy, NFC – Near Field Communication, RFID – Radio Frequency Identification, 5G Mobile, ZigBee – mesh network, WIFI, Ethernet. Most of these are standard like, WIFI, Ethernet and Mobile etc, but the likes of ZigBee LPWAN, BLE, RFID,and NFC are relatively specialised. Each option has tradeoffs between power consumption, range, and bandwidth and further info can be found here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thread_(network_protocol)#Competing_IoT_protocols. the network topology is either mesh or star, star network topology being the simplest but it is also less resilient.